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Special Note: Garden of Life uses a large number of specially purposed English words, often spelled slightly differently than regular, to make their specific meaning more apparent. We also use a large number of neologisms, specifically constructed for Temple use. All of this type of terminology is defined in several places on the website, here in the Garden of Life website Definitions pages, in the Articles of Organization glossary, and such. If you are viewing this page in a browser which doesn't support full current Unicode coding or if you haven't installed current free Unicode fonts, such as Code2000 version 1.171 at FontSpace or Alphabetical List of Unicode Fonts, many of the phonetic characters, diacritical marks, and symbols in these pages will not show up or will show up as boxes. Availability changes so you may have to do a search. It's a free font for personal use, so we can send you a copy if you can't find it. And the display probably won't be perfect anyway, but it's getting closer all the time. At the risk of belabouring the extremely obvious, this page is a work in progress, with quite a distance to go before it sleeps. All of these Attributions are from our perspective. We are not putting them forward as objective fact. We welcome all feedback at Defs@gardenoflifetemple.com, though we do not guarantee to process such feedback other than for ascertainable accuracy and usefulness. Thanks.
 

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Jainism ― When used in reference to a MetaPhysical Orientation as to Tradition, Culture or Preferred Flavour, is primarily defined, usually selfdefined by its members and/or adherents which holds teachings originating in and/or interpolations thereon as a primary or critical parameter of their Spiritual Paradigm. JAINISM (Sanskrit, jainas: "saint"): A major religion originating in India that has some similarity to Buddhism. Jainism does not recognize the authority of the Veda and its philosophy includes belief in the eternity of matter, the periodicity of the universe, the immortality of human's and animal's minds. It stresses non-violence and Jains are particularly known for avoiding harming any living thing. Jainism traces its roots to a succession of 24 Jinas ("those who overcome", or conqueror) in ancient East India. The first Jina is traditionally believed to have been a giant who lived 8.4 million years ago. The most recent and last Jina was Vardhamana (a.k.a. Mahavira, "The Great Hero") He was born in 550 BCE) and was the founder of the Jain community. He attained enlightenment after 13 years of deprivation. In 420 BCE, he committed the act of salekhana which is fasting to death. Each Jina has "conquered love and hate, pleasure and pain, attachment and aversion, and has thereby freed 'his' soul from the karmas obscuring knowledge, perception, truth, and ability..." Jainism is a syncretistic religion, which contains many elements similar to Hinduism and Buddhism. The world's almost 4 million Jains are almost entirely located in India. There are about 1,410 in Canada (1991 census).


Jainist Beliefs and Practices:
• The universe exists as a series of layers, both heavens and hells. It had no beginning and will have no ending. It consists of:
     • The supreme abode: This is located at the top of the universe and is where Siddha, the liberated souls, live.
     • The upper world: 30 heavens where celestial beings live.
     • Middle world: the earth and the rest of the universe.
     • Nether world: 7 hells with various levels of misery and punishments
     • The Nigoda, or base: where the lowest forms of life reside
     • Universe space: layers of clouds that surround the upper world
     • Space beyond: infinite volumes without soul, matter, time, medium of motion or medium of rest.
• Everyone is bound within the universe by one's karma (the accumulated good and evil that one has done).
• Moksha (liberation from an endless succession of lives through reincarnation)
          is achieved by enlightenment, which can be attained only through asceticism.
• They are expected to follow five principles of living:
     • Ahimsa: "non violence in all parts of a person -- mental, verbal and physical."
          Committing an act of violence against a human, animal, or even vegetable
          generates negative karma which in turn adversely affects one's next life.
     • Satya: speaking truth; avoiding falsehood
     • Asteya: to not steal from others
     • Brahma-charya: (soul conduct); remaining sexually monogamous to one's spouse only
     • Aparigraha: detach from people, places and material things.
          Avoiding the collection of excessive material possessions,
          abstaining from over-indulgence, restricting one's needs, etc.
• Jains follow a vegetarian diet.
          (Sometimes it is incorrectly stated that Jains follow a frutarian diet -- the practice of only eating
          that which will not kill the plant or animal from which it is taken. e.g. milk, fruit, nuts.)
• Jains read and study from their sacred texts daily.
• Jains are recommended to pass through four stages during their lifetime:
     • Brahmacharya-ashrama: the life of a student
     • Gruhasth-ashrama: family life
     • Vanaprasth-ashrama: family and social services
     • Sanyast-ashrama: life as a monk; a period of renunciation
Divisions among Jains There are two groups of Jains:
     • The Digambaras (literally "sky clad" or naked):
          Their monks carry asceticism to the point of rejecting even clothing (even when they appear in public).
     • The Shvetambaras (literally "white clad"):
          Their monks wear simple white robes. The laity are permitted to wear clothes of any color.

Javelin ― When the term Javelin is used in reference to a Mægikal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool and/or Focus it generally refers to a cylindrical rhod of wood which is bladed at the end, specifically made for general or particular Mægikal Werking, and/or consecrated to the same. The Javelin, like all Spears are interesting in Elemental attribution, in that they are both Rhods and Blades, representing Fire and Air, both of the Masculine Elements.

see also: Mægikal Implements, Sacred Objects, Ceremonial Tools, Ritual Apparati, and/or Foci , Τέλεσμα (Telesma) which is an Ægean 'umbrella' term indicating: any object consecrated for future utility, through specific religious, mægikal, and/or spiritual Werking, and/or through its own intrinsic nature.

Je n'sais quois ― Je n'sais qua - something indescribable. Literally, "I don't know what".

Jefferson's Manual

Jewelry Arts ― When the term Jewelry Arts (also called Jewellery Arts) is used in the context of the various categories of Art, it normally refers to is a form of personal adornment, such as circlets, brooches, rings, pendants, necklaces, earrings, armlets, anklets, and bracelets. With some exceptions, such as jewelry type items used for identification purposes, jewellery normally differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to look appealing, but humans have been producing and wearing it for a long time, with 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells thought to be the oldest known jewellery. Jewellery may be made from a wide range of materials, but gemstones, precious metals, beads and shells have been widely used. Depending on the culture and times jewellery may be appreciated as a status symbol, for its material properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings.

See also: Art

Jnana Yoga, The Yoga of Knowledge or Wisdom (one of four main paths of Yoga) ― This is the most difficult path, requiring tremendous strength of will and intellect. Taking the philosophy of Vedanta the Jnana Yogi uses his mind to inquire into its own nature. We perceive the space inside and outside a glass as different, just as we see ourselves as separate from God. Jnana Yoga leads the devotee to experience his unity with God directly by breaking the glass, dissolving the veils of ignorance. Before practicing Jnana Yoga, the aspirant needs to have integrated the lessons of the other yogic paths - for without selflessness and love of God, strength of body and mind, the search for self-realization can become mere idle speculation.

JOINING (when considered as a Sacrament) ― Garden of Life considers Joining a Pagan Sacrament. In a preliminary description Joining may be an Act and/or Process acknowledging Unification between Individuals, and that they wish to be treated as a family. True Joining occurs within the Individuals involved, however, a Tradition may Affirm and Certify the Accomplished Fact. The Sacrament of Joining usually includes a specifically designed Celebration to acknowledge the Tradition's Affirmation that the Individuals have attained such Joining. Formal Written Declaration of a Tradition's Affirmation of Joining for Individuals may be issued and/or archived, often upon completion of a Werking acknowledging such. This declaration is referred to as a Certificate of Joining. Neither the Certificate nor Celebration should be called a Joining, as that term properly indicates the actual experience of the Individuals involved. After a Joining, the Individuals are Joined in the Eyes of the Tradition, and henceforth are to be treated as a Household.
Below please find the wording that Garden of Life uses in it's Articles of Organization to delineate this Sacrament:
An Act, Acts, a Process, Processes and/or Series of Acts and/or Processes achieving Unification of Fields (in explication this reference is to an Entity's Field of Individuation which includes all of the Individual's aspects and component attributes: Essential, Intrinsic, Peripheral, Chronometric, Synchronometric, Durative, Inchoate, Established, Corporeal, Æthereal, Physical, Mental and Spiritual) between Individuals. Formal written declaration of such extant fact may be entered into the Temple Archives, often upon completion of a specifically designed Celebratory Werking (Affirmation of Joining Celebration) to indicate the Temple's Affirmation: that Members are Joined in the Eyes of the Temple, and henceforth to be treated as a Household. This declaration is referred to as a Certificate of Joining. Neither the Certificate nor Celebration should be called a Joining, as that term properly indicates the actual experience of the Individuals involved. The Temple may set forth in the ByLaws the types of Joining Celebrations ordinarily performed. The Sacrament must be requested by all Individuals directly involved, and there is a required counseling period, before a Joining Celebration will be held, during which such requestors must converse with Officiants of the Temple, as to their intentions and desires for the Joining. Within the Doctrine of Garden of Life is the Belief that True Joining occurs within the Individuals involved, however, the Temple does Affirm and Certify the Accomplished Fact.

Joinings ― a specifically designed Celebratory Werking (Affirmation of Joining Celebration) to indicate a Tradition's acknowledgment that the Individuals involved are henceforth considered Joined in the Eyes of the Tradition.

Judaism ― When used in reference to a MetaPhysical Orientation as to Tradition, Culture or Preferred Flavour, Judaism is primarily defined, usually selfdefined by it's members and/or adherents holding the belief that a covenant was made between a Sumerian citizen: Abram, circa ~2000bce and one of the deities of the Israelite/Canaanite Pantheon, who claimed to be the only extant deity in the Cosmos (Jehovah/Yahweh) whereby Abram became Abraham and was promised that he would be the patriarch of many nations in exchange for the Israelites considering that deity to be the only God and providing him with worship; and writings or viewpoints of various authors of the more orthodox currently accepted Torah as primary or critical parameters of their Spiritual Paradigm. The term Abramic Religions is derived from his name. There are four religions which in different ways trace their roots back to Abram/Abraham: Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Baha'i World Faith. Many of the writings of the Hebrew Traditions appear to be histories of some type whether taken literally or figuratively. Some of those books are familiar to Western Civilization as the Abramic "Bible". The book of Genesis for instance describes the events surrounding the lives of the three patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. (Joseph, who is recognized as a fourth patriarch by Christians is not considered one by in Judaism). Moses was the next leader of the ancient Israelites. He led his people out of captivity in Egypt, and received the Law from Jehovah/Yahweh. After decades of wandering through wilderness, Joshua led the tribes into the promised land, driving out the Canaanites through a series of military battles.

The Tanakh corresponds to the Jewish Scriptures, (often referred to as the Old Testament by Christians). It is composed of three groups of books:
     • the Torah (aka Pentateuch): Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.
     • the Nevi'im: Joshua, Judges, Samuel (2), Kings (2), Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zachariah, Malachi, Isaiah, Amos.
     • the Ketuvim, the "Writings" including Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Ruth, Esther, Lamentations, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles
The Talmud contains stories, laws, medical knowledge, debates about moral choices, etc. It is composed of material that comes mainly from two sources:
     • the Mishnah, 6 "orders" containing hundreds of chapters, including series of laws from the Hebrew Scriptures. It was compiled about 200 CE.
     • the Gemara (one Babylonian and one Palestinian) is encyclopedic in scope. It includes comments from hundreds of Rabbis from 200 - 500 CE, explaining the Mishnah with additional historical, religious, legal, sociological, etc. material. It often records many different opinions on a topic without giving a definitive answer.
Beliefs include:
     • Jehovah/Yahweh is the creator of all that exists; he is one, incorporeal (without a body), and he alone is to be worshipped as absolute ruler of the universe.
     • The first five books of the Hebrew Bible were revealed to Moses by Jehovah/Yahweh. It will not be changed or augmented in the future.
     • Jehovah/Yahweh has communicated to the Jewish people through prophets.
     • Jehovah/Yahweh monitors the activities of humans; he rewards individuals for good deeds and punishes evil
     • Although Christians base much of their faith on the same Hebrew Scriptures as Jews, there are major differences in belief:
     • Jews generally consider actions and behavior to be of primary importance; beliefs come out of actions. This conflicts with conservative Christians for whom belief is of primary importance and actions tend to be secondary.
     • Jewish belief does not accept the Christian concept of original sin (the belief that all people have inherited Adam and Eve's sin when they disobeyed Jehovah/Yahweh's instructions in the Garden of Eden).
     • Judaism affirms the inherent goodness of the world and its people as creations of Jehovah/Yahweh.
     • Believers are able to sanctify their lives and draw closer to Jehovah/Yahweh by performing fulfilling mitzvot (divine commandments).
     • No savior is needed or is available as an intermediary.
     • Beliefs about Jesus vary considerably. Some view him as a great moral teacher. Others see him as a false prophet or as an idol of Christianity. Some sects of Judaism will not even say his name due to the prohibition against saying an idol's name.
     • The Jews are often referred to as Jehovah/Yahweh's chosen people. This does not mean that they are in any way to be considered superior to other groups. Biblical verses such as Exodus 19:5 simply imply that Jehovah/Yahweh has selected Israel to receive and study the Torah, to worship Jehovah/Yahweh only, to rest on the Sabbath, and to celebrate the festivals. Jews were not chosen to be better that others; they were simply selected to receive more difficult responsibilities, and more onerous punishment if they fail.
     • The 613 commandments found in Leviticus and other books regulate all aspects of Jewish life
     • The Ten commandments, as delineated in Exodus 20:1-17 and Deuteronomy 5:6-21, form a brief synopsis of the Law
     • The Messiah (anointed one of Jehovah/Yahweh) will arrive in the future and gather Jews once more into the land of Israel. There will be a general resurrection of the dead at that time. The Jerusalem Temple, destroyed in 70 CE, will be rebuilt.
     • Boys reach the status of Bar Mitzvah on their 13th birthday; girls reach Bat Mitzvah on their 12th birthday. This means that they are recognized as adults and are personally responsible to follow the Jewish commandments and laws; they are allowed to lead a religious service; they are counted in a "minyan" (a quota of men necessary to perform certain parts of religious services); they can sign contracts; they can testify in religious courts; theoretically, they can marry, although the Talmud recommends 18 to 24 as the proper age for marriage. The more liberal movements within Judaism differ from some of the above beliefs concerning the source of the Torah, the concept of direct reward and punishment according to one's behavior, etc.

Jewish Practices include:
     • Observation of the Sabbath as a day of rest, starting at sundown on Friday evening.
     • Strict discipline, according to the Law, which governs all areas of life
     • Regular attendance by Jewish males at Synagogue
     • Celebration of the annual festivals including:
     • Passover, or Pesach is held each Spring to recall the Jews' deliverance out of slavery in Egypt circa 1300 BCE. A ritual Seder meal is eaten in each observing Jewish home at this time.
Six different foods are placed on the Seder plate in the order in which they area eaten:
     • Karpas (vegetables dipped in salt water) recalls the bitter tears shed during slavery
     • Maror (bitter herbs) to symbolize the bitterness of slavery.
     • Chazeret (bitter vegetables) also to symbolize the bitterness of slavery.
     • Choroset (apple, nuts & spices with wine) represents the mortar used by Hebrew slaves.
Also placed on the Seder plate, but uneaten during the Seder meal:
     • Zeroa (lamb shankbone) to recall the Passover sacrifice in the ancient temple.
     • Beitzah (roasted egg) symbolizes mourning, sacrifice, spring, and renewal. Not placed on the Seder plate, but often eaten, is a boiled egg.
     • Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year, and is the anniversary of the completion of creation, about 5760 years ago. It is held in the fall.
     • The 10 days from Rosh Hashanah to Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, are days of fasting and penitence.
     • Sukkoth or the Feast of Booths is an 8 day harvest festival; a time of thanksgiving.
     • Hanukkah or the Feast of Lights is an 8 day feast of dedication. It recalls the war fought by the Maccabees in the cause of religious freedom. It is typically observed in December. Originally a minor Jewish holy day, it has become more important in recent years.
     • Purim, the Feast of Lots recalls the defeat by Queen Esther of the plan to slaughter all of the Persian Jews, circa 400 BCE.
     • Shavout, the Feast of Weeks recalls Jehovah/Yahweh's revelation of the Torah to the Jewish people. It is held in late May or early June. Rules for calculating Rosh Hashanah and Passover are available online at: http://quasar.as.utexas.edu/BillInfo/ReligiousCalendars.html
     • The local synagogue is governed by the congregation and is normally led by a rabbi who has been chosen by the congregation. A rabbi is a teacher who has been well educated in Jewish law and tradition.
     • Any adult male with sufficient knowledge can lead religious services. In reform and some conservative congregations, a woman can also preside. This is often done in those Jewish communities who lack a rabbi.
     • The Chief Rabbis in France and Great Britain have authority only by the agreement of those who accept it. Two Chief Rabbis in Israel have civil authority in areas of family law.

Jewish Movements:
There are five main forms of Judaism in the world today:
     • Conservative* Judaism: This began in the mid-nineteenth century as a reaction against the Reform movement. It is a main-line movement midway between Reform and Orthodox.
     • Humanistic Judaism: This is a very small group, mainly composed of atheists and agnostics, who regard mankind as the measure of all things.
     • Orthodox* Judaism: This is the oldest, most conservative, and most diverse form of Judaism. Modern Orthodox, Chasidim and Ultra Orthodox share a basic belief in the derivation of Jewish law, even as they hold very different outlooks on life. They attempt to follow the original form of Judaism as they view it to be. They look upon every word in their sacred texts as being divinely inspired.
     • Reconstructionist Judaism: This is a new, small, liberal movement started by Mordecai Kaplan as an attempt to unify and revitalize the religion. They reject the concept that Jews are a uniquely favored and chosen people. They have no connection at all with Christian Reconstructionism, which is an ultra-conservative form of Christianity.
     • Reform* Judaism: They are a liberal group, followed by many North American Jews. The movement started in the 1790's in Germany. They follow the ethical laws of Judaism, but leave up to the individual the decision whether to follow or ignore the dietary and other traditional laws. They use modern forms of worship. There are many female rabbis in reform congregations.
* These are the largest forms of Judaism

Juju ― The term Juju, like Mâna, and numerous other terms actually refers more to the mægikal field, or power of various types of objects, or the energy with which they effect their actions, rather than the items themselves

see also: Mægikal Implements, Sacred Objects, Ceremonial Tools, Ritual Apparati, and/or Foci , Τέλεσμα (Telesma) which is an Ægean 'umbrella' term indicating: any object consecrated for future utility, through specific religious, mægikal, and/or spiritual Werking, and/or through its own intrinsic nature.

Juno (Local Star System Component) ― see: H̅êя̇ä

Jupiter (Local Star System Component) ― see: Я̅ℎ⃥āä

Jurisdiction

Jyotish Astrology ― When the term Jyotish Astrology is used in reference to a type of Divination, it generally refers to one of the most widely known types of Astrology within the context of Sanatana Dharma, as practiced on the Indian subcontinent, thought to have originated during the influx of Hellenic or Ægean culture in the first centuries of the common era. As with other Asian Astrologies it relies primarily on the Sidereal reckonings, of the Zodiac. Jyotish Astrology is also referred to as Vedic Astrology, or Sanatana Dharma Astrology.

If you wish you can check out our 'in progress' current revision of the Garden of Life Astrology Key, which we hope to complete some day. Some closely related topics here in this section of the website are: Astrology, Asian Astrology, Sidereal Astrology, Tropical Astrology, Horoscopes,

See also: A general Divinatory System list with short definitions, Divination, Divinatory Systems, -mancy suffix, Μαντεία (Manteia), meaning divination, -scopy suffix, Mægikal Implements, Sacred Objects, Ceremonial Tools, Ritual Apparati, and/or Foci, and Τέλεσμα (Telesma) which is an Ægean 'umbrella' term indicating: any object consecrated for future utility, through specific religious, mægikal, and/or spiritual Werking, and/or through its own intrinsic nature.


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Definitions, Premisses, and Info Index by Sound and Letter

Capital A with ring aboveÅ   Capital A with macronĀ   Capital A with breveĂ   Capital A with diaeresisÄ   Capital A with circumflex   Capital A with dot aboveȦ   Capital A with inverted breveȂ   Capital A with tildeà   Capital A with ogonekĄ   Capital AE ligatureÆ   Capital AE ligature with tildeÆ̃   Capital Glottal Stop   Capital Palatoalveolar Click   Regular English AA   Script Capital L   Capital L with macron above   Capital L with dot below   Capital L with stroke, Dark L Ł   Regular English LL   Capital WHω   Capital W with macron above   Capital W with dot below   Regular English WW   Capital Slide H with reverse solidusℋ⃥   Capital H with macron above   Capital H with dot below   Aspirate   Slight Pause   Very Slight Pause   Regular English HH   Capital S with macron above   Capital S with dot above   Capital SH sign   Capital SKΣ   Regular English SS   Hard and Deep Capital DД   High and Light Capital D   Regular English DD   Capital O with ring above   Capital O with macronŌ   Capital O with breveŎ   Capital O with diaeresisÖ   Capital O with solidusØ   Capital OE ligatureŒ   Capital O with Cyrillic Round OmegaѺ   Capital OI   Capital O with ogonekǪ   Capital O with double oo top   Regular English OO   Capital EZJHʑ   Capital Z with macron below   Capital Z with dot aboveŻ   Regular English ZZ   Capital K with macron aboveК̅   Capital K with dot below К̣   Capital Hard KHχ   Capital KHƙ   Regular English KK   Capital V with macron above   Capital V with dot below   Regular English VV   Capital G with macron   Capital G with dot aboveĠ   Capital GNΓ   Capital GRЖ   Capital GWCapital GW   Capital Uvular Voiced ImplosiveϘ   Regular English GG   Capital rolled R with macronЯ̅   Capital rolled R with dot aboveЯ̇   Capital R with macron above   Capital R with dot above   Capital R with ogonek   Regular English RR   Capital C with cedillaÇ   Capital CHЧ   Regular English CC   Capital N with macron above   Capital N with dot below   Capital N with tildeÑ   Capital NGŋ   Capital NG with macron aboveŋ̅   Regular English NN   Capital Y with macron above Ȳ   Capital Y with dot above   Capital Y with yaw aboveЎ   Regular English YY   Capital J with macron aboveЈ̅   Capital J with dot belowЈ̣   Regular English JJ   Capital U with a ring aboveŮ   Capital U with macronŪ   Capital U with breveŬ   Capital U with circumflex aboveÛ   Capital U with diaeresisÜ   Regular English UU   Capital F with macron above   Capital F with dot above   Regular English FF   Capital Q with macron above   Capital Q with dot above   Regular English QQ   Capital B with macron   Capital B with dot below   Trilled BTrilled B   Regular English BB   Capital M with macron   Capital M with dot below   Capital M with tilde   Capital MBCapital MB   Capital MG   Regular English MM   Capital X with macron above   Capital X with dot above   Regular English XX   Capital I with macronĪ   Capital I with breveĬ   Regular English II   Capital T with macron above   Capital T with dot below   Capital TH voicedΘ   Capital TH voicelessÞ   Capital TSЦ   Capital TSCHЩ   Regular English TT   Capital E with macronĒ   Capital E with breveĔ   Capital E with circumflexÊ   Capital schwa Ə   Regular English EE   Capital P with macron above   Capital P with dot above   Capital pTCapital pT   Regular English PP

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