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Special Note: Garden of Life uses a large number of specially purposed English words, often spelled slightly differently than regular, to make their specific meaning more apparent. We also use a large number of neologisms, specifically constructed for Temple use. All of this type of terminology is defined in several places on the website, here in the Garden of Life website Definitions pages, in the Articles of Organization glossary, and such. If you are viewing this page in a browser which doesn't support full current Unicode coding or if you haven't installed current free Unicode fonts, such as Code2000 version 1.171 at FontSpace or Alphabetical List of Unicode Fonts, many of the phonetic characters, diacritical marks, and symbols in these pages will not show up or will show up as boxes. Availability changes so you may have to do a search. It's a free font for personal use, so we can send you a copy if you can't find it. And the display probably won't be perfect anyway, but it's getting closer all the time. At the risk of belabouring the extremely obvious, this page is a work in progress, with quite a distance to go before it sleeps. All of these Attributions are from our perspective. We are not putting them forward as objective fact. We welcome all feedback at Defs@gardenoflifetemple.com, though we do not guarantee to process such feedback other than for ascertainable accuracy and usefulness. Thanks.
 

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V̅ĭz̄ēя̄ ― A phonetically constructed word based on the Ægyptian concept of an implementational officer of the court.

V̅ĭz̄ēя̄ to the Council of Elder Officiants

V̅ĭz̄ēя̄ż ― Plural of V̅ĭz̄ēя̄.

V̅ĭz̄ēя̄ż Guild

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☾ ☾ ☾ ☾ ☾ V ☽ ☽ ☽ ☽ ☽

 

Vajrayana Buddhism ― When used in reference to a MetaPhysical Orientation as to Tradition, Culture or Preferred Flavour, is primarily defined, usually selfdefined by its members and/or adherents as such, and holding the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha, and/or interpolations thereon as a primary or critical parameter of their Spiritual Paradigm. Vajra (Sanskrit) Diamond or thunderbolt; one possessing this scepter, or diamond-thunderbolt, possesses great spiritual, intellectual, and psychic powers; among others, the occult ability to repel evil influences by purifying the air, as ozone does in chemistry. The vajra mystically refers to indestructibility and to the wondrous reflective powers of the diamond. Some postulate that there is no monolithic Buddhism as such, but that there are Buddhisms such as Sinhala Buddhism or more precisely Sinhala Theravada Buddhism, Siam or Thai Buddhism, Myanmar or Amarapura Buddhism and so forth. The complete entry on Vajrayana Buddhism (also see: the complete entry on Buddhism.)

Valentinian Gnostic ― Famous 2nd century Gnostic who in many ways was the unacknowledged teacher of the Church Fathers Origen and Clement. His teachings, largely those of the ancient wisdom, were probably derived from the esoteric schools in Alexandria. He is author of "The Shepherd of Hermes" and various Homilies and Epistles, and is said to have been the author of the celebrated Gnostic gospel, the Pistis Sophia, where his doctrines are set forth. His school, the Valentinians, had Italian and Asiatic branches, which gave rise to other offshoots, thus spreading his influence far and wide and exerting an enduring effect on thought. He averred that the apostles had not publicly given out all they knew, but that they had esoteric knowledge. He taught that the primal cause, which he names Bythos (depth), manifested itself as the pleroma (fullness), the sum total of all manifestation. His teachings on pleroma are defined by a vast, intricate diagrammatic scheme, representing a process of emanation on a hierarchical plan with threefold, sevenfold, tenfold, and twelvefold hierarchies; mankind itself forming a lower branch of these hierarchies. Thus he is enabled to explain the origin of mixture or evil, and to reconcile the goodness of God with the imperfection of nature by pointing to minor demiurgic creators; thus too he can give the true meaning of Christ and redemption.

Values ― Values are that which we seek to achieve or maintain according to our life as the standard of evaluation. Values are the motive power behind purposeful action. They are the ends to which we act. Without them, life would be impossible. Life requires self-generated action to sustain itself. Without values, one could not act, and death would follow. Value specifies a relationship between a person and a goal. A value requires a valuor--a particular person who aims to achieve or maintain something. An object cannot have value in itself. Value is relational, and so requires a person and a goal. The goal to which one aims is called the "value", but the relationship is always required. This means an object cannot be a value in itself. It only gains the title of value when a person acts to achieve or maintain it. Values are essential to ethics. Ethics is concerned with human actions, and the choice of those actions. Ethics evaluates those actions, and the values that underlies them. It determines which values should be pursued, and which shouldn't. Ethics is a code of values. It is important to keep in mind that virtues are not absolutes. Or, put another way, they are contextually absolute. They are not to be followed blindly and dogmatically. Virtues only apply within the context in which they were formulated. To understand the context and when a virtue applies is why you must understand the "why" behind the "what" of each principle. When it is not clear whether a virtue applies or how to apply it, you must fall back onto your ultimate standard of value, your life, to guide your actions.

Vedic (other than traditional Sanatan Dharma) ― When used in reference to a MetaPhysical Orientation as to Tradition, Culture or Preferred Flavour, is primarily defined, usually selfdefined by its members and/or adherents holding as a primary or critical parameter of their Spiritual Paradigm.

― Vè is the term that modern (and possibly ancient) Nordic Practitionors use to describe the Sacred Spaces in which they hold their Werkings. It is interesting, especially in the connection, that it was not considered to be a static Circle or other shape, but instead might be a series of spaces, paths and such that the Werking would process through in a predetermined or spontaneously chosen order. Werkings held in the more often seen cast Circles, are dynamic in and of themselves, but it does add a whole other level of possible experiential experimentation if this idea of moving the Werking through various physical locales is incorporated. This might be a survival of ideas from various FinnoUgric Shamanic Traditions, which treated the idea of Sacred Space in this same mobile fashion. FinnoUgric Shamanic Traditions are the most interesting since they seem to have avoided most or possibly all of the cultural contamination which the Christians visited on most other indigenous Traditions.

Vegetal Celebratory Preparation Materials ― When the term Vegetal Celebratory Preparation Materials is used in reference to a Mægikal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool and/or Focus it generally refers to any type of compstumables, specifically made for general or particular Mægikal Werking, and/or consecrated to the same.

see also: Mægikal Implements, Sacred Objects, Ceremonial Tools, Ritual Apparati, and/or Foci , Τέλεσμα (Telesma) which is an Ægean 'umbrella' term indicating: any object consecrated for future utility, through specific religious, mægikal, and/or spiritual Werking, and/or through its own intrinsic nature.

Vegetal Cycle ― When the term Vegetal Cycle is used in a metaphysical frame of reference, such as regarding the determination of a Celebratory Cycle of some sort, it indicates that the HolyDays and Events Celebrated are attached to agricultural concerns, determined by the appropriate times of planting, tending, and harvesting food crops.

Veil ― When the term Veil is used in reference to a Mægikal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool, Ritual Apparatus, and/or Focus it generally refers to a cloth, ordinarily translucent (may vary from virtually transparent to almost opaque) which is used to view through, specifically made for general or particular Mægikal Werking, and/or consecrated to the same,. Metaphorically of course it may be used as a reference to any object or condition which is between any observer and observed.
see also The Dance of Seven Veils,Perfection billows around Her Veil, All that May Be Veil, Opener of the Ways Veil, Irresistible is Her Harbinger Veil, Glamour and Voluptuousness Veil, She is Glorious Veil, My Heart is as a Feather Veil

see also: Mægikal Implements, Sacred Objects, Ceremonial Tools, Ritual Apparati, and/or Foci , Τέλεσμα (Telesma) which is an Ægean 'umbrella' term indicating: any object consecrated for future utility, through specific religious, mægikal, and/or spiritual Werking, and/or through its own intrinsic nature.

Venus (Local Star System Component) ― see: Åṗ'f̅я̄ōīṭē

Vernal Equinox ― Vernal Equinoctes occur and are noted in various Astronomical and Astrological ways among a variety of Traditions, secular and religious. When Garden of Life uses the term Vernal Equinox it typically refers to the Celebration of the event, however it might be determined, utilizing the forms and techniques which have become Sacred to our Tradition. Many of these we share in common with the wider Pagan community, ancient and modern; and may be Celebrated in numerous manners from simple personal acknowledgement, to a regular Werking Circle, all points in between and beyond. One of the Great Celebrations on the Garden of Life Temple Calendar, Vernal Equinox Memorializes and Honours the Balance between Winter and Summer going toward Summer, the Movement from Security to Freedom. The Key Concepts are the Sanctity of Freedom and the Striving for Liberty. It is an Ideal time for Clearing/Cleansing, Letting-Go, Major Passages, Transitions, and Swan Songs for Persons, Places, Objects, Ideas and Plans. Celebrated by many Traditions, this Solar HolyDay Celebration centers around the closest calculably accurate time for that Vernal Equinox in the Northern Hemisphere of Ḡāēä (the procedures for the Southern Hemisphere of Ḡāēä will be determined for Garden of Life at such time as there are Garden of Life members planning Celebrations in the Southern Hemisphere. However the seasons are pretty straightforwardly switched out.).

See also: HolyDay, Garden of Life Temple Celebrations, Celebratory Rites and Festivals of ḠĀĒÄ, Lunar Celebratory Rites and Festivals, Solar Celebratory Rites and Festivals, Θê'ēäñäд'äs̄, Sacramental Celebrations, and Informal Spiritual Celebrations

Versicles ― When the term Versicles [in Aleister Crowley's 777 Tables of Correspondences, key number 8] is used in reference to a Mægikal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool, Ritual Apparatus, and/or Focus it generally refers to a short verse or sentence said or sung by a leader in public services and followed by a response from other Celebrants, specifically created for general or particular Mægikal Werking, and/or consecrated to the same,, also called responsive reading, so versicles would be the texts that are responsively read. Middle English, from Latin versiculus, diminutive of versus, verse

see also: Mægikal Implements, Sacred Objects, Ceremonial Tools, Ritual Apparati, and/or Foci , Τέλεσμα (Telesma) which is an Ægean 'umbrella' term indicating: any object consecrated for future utility, through specific religious, mægikal, and/or spiritual Werking, and/or through its own intrinsic nature.

Vessel ― When the term Vessel is used in reference to a Mægikal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool, Ritual Apparatus, and/or Focus it generally refers to a container (often though not always for liquids), such as a cauldron, chalice, cask, bottle, kettle, cup, vial, or bowl, for holding something, specifically made for general or particular Mægikal Werking, and/or consecrated to the same. It is interesting, and certainly inferences and nuances may be drawn from the fact that the same word is used for a person who is acting as a container for some quality or essence, either from outside themselves, or from outside their normal set of behaviours and known character; and for boats and ships above a certain size (which is interesting in that they are the opposite of containers of liquid, since they contain air-tight compartments and keep out the liquid environment); and of course the term vessel is also used in a medical sense for the tubes that distribute oxygenated blood around the body.

see also: Mægikal Implements, Sacred Objects, Ceremonial Tools, Ritual Apparati, and/or Foci , Τέλεσμα (Telesma) which is an Ægean 'umbrella' term indicating: any object consecrated for future utility, through specific religious, mægikal, and/or spiritual Werking, and/or through its own intrinsic nature.

Vesta (Local Star System Component) ― see: H̅ĕs̄t̄ēä

Vestments ― When the term Vestments is used in reference to a Mægikal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool and/or Focus it generally refers to any type of raiment, specifically made for general or particular Mægikal Werking, and/or consecrated to the same, including for example: Robes, Headresses, Cloaks, and Wings.

see also: Mægikal Implements, Sacred Objects, Ceremonial Tools, Ritual Apparati, and/or Foci , Τέλεσμα (Telesma) which is an Ægean 'umbrella' term indicating: any object consecrated for future utility, through specific religious, mægikal, and/or spiritual Werking, and/or through its own intrinsic nature.

Vigor ― When the term Vigor is used to designate one of the Garden of Life principal Celebrations, it refers to one of five Celebrations which constitute the Celebrations of the Rites and Festivals of ḠĀĒÄ, based on our interpretation of the Vegetative Cycle. One of the Great Celebrations on the Garden of Life Temple Calendar, Vigor Memorializes and Honours the Ripening Force of the Growing Season at it's Height. The Key Concept is the Sanctity of Raw Power and the Wise Application thereof. It is an Ideal time for Werkings for Persons, Places, Objects, Ideas and Plans. Parallel to many Tradition's Âя̄'я̇ēäñ'ʀ̇ℎ⃥ǫд or Lughnassad, the time and place of Garden of Life's Celebration of this Ḡāēäñ HolyDay will be determined by the Council of Elder Officiants as a Celebration of the Peak Efflorescence and First Growth of the Growing Season [Currently for the Northern Hemisphere of Ḡāēä (the procedures for the Southern Hemisphere of Ḡāēä will be determined at such time as there are Garden of Life members planning Celebrations in the Southern Hemisphere. However the seasons are pretty straightforwardly switched out.)]. Vigor will fall between the Summer Solstice and the Autumnal Equinox.

See also: HolyDay, Garden of Life Temple Celebrations, Celebratory Rites and Festivals of ḠĀĒÄ, Lunar Celebratory Rites and Festivals, Solar Celebratory Rites and Festivals, Θê'ēäñäд'äs̄, Sacramental Celebrations, and Informal Spiritual Celebrations

Vinča Culture or Old European ― The Vinča culture was an early culture of neolithic Europe between the 6th and the 3rd millennium BC, stretching around the course of Danube in what today is Serbia, Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania, Bulgaria and Macedonia, although traces of it can be found all around the Balkans, parts of Central Europe and Asia Minor.

In Romania this culture is known as Turdaş culture, in Hungary as Tordos culture, in Bulgaria as Gradeshnitsa culture, although these are just local names/versions of the same culture.

Much of the research done on the Vinča Culture was done by Marija Gimbutas, neé Marija Birutė Alseikaitė to Veronika Janulaitytė-Alseikienė and Danielius Alseika in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. And much analysis was done by her on both her own and other findings. She presented various hypotheses, on the interpretations of the findings, not as fact but as her speculations as to what might have occurred in prehistory. Her ideas have gone through various periods of acceptance and rejection by the mainstream, as is often the case.

In 1956 Gimbutas introduced her Kurgan hypothesis, which combined archaeological study of the distinctive Kurgan burial mounds with linguistics to unravel some problems in the study of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) speaking peoples, whom she dubbed the "Kurgans"; namely, to account for their origin and to trace their migrations into Europe. This hypothesis, and the act of bridging the disciplines, has had a significant impact on Indo-European studies. Briefly, her view of Old Europe in the Neolithic period developed from the idea that unfortified settlements were widespread, though this was not universal. This peaceful existence prevailed without threat of violence or fear of death itself. She postulated a matrifocal society where formal marriage did not exist, and certainly no situations where men were in charge of "their" women, yet men fulfilled important roles in construction, crafts and trade. Women's lives were liberal, socially and sexually, and inextricably bound to the rich religious system which ensured their prominence. Old Europe is portrayed as culturally homogeneous, socially egalitarian, devoid of human or animal sacrifice. Accordingly, this utopian existence was abruptly destroyed by Indo-European invasions: more specifically by the patriarchal Kurgan culture, a pervasive horse utilizing society originating on the Russian steppe.

Gimbutas gained unexpected fame — and notoriety — with her last three books: The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe (1974); The Language of the Goddess (1989), which inspired an exhibition in Wiesbaden, 1993/94; and her final book, The Civilization of the Goddess (1991), which presented an overview of her speculations about Neolithic cultures across Europe: housing patterns, social structure, art, religion, and the nature of literacy.

The Civilization of the Goddess articulated what Gimbutas saw as the differences between the Old European system, which she considered Goddess- and woman-centered (gynocentric), and the Bronze Age Indo-European patriarchal ("androcratic") culture which supplanted it. According to her interpretations, gynocentric (or matristic) societies were peaceful, they honored homosexuals, and they espoused economic equality.

Vinča Script or Old European Script

Vin-Dit ― in the context of the Vonnegutian Bokononist Religion is "a sudden, very personal shove in the direction of Bokononism".

Virginity

Virgo (Western Tropical Astrology Sign) ― see: Åṡ's̄t̄ʀ̄āēä

Virtual Particle

Virtuality

Virtuism ― When used in reference to a point of view within the field of Ethical, Value and/or Behavioural Matters, this is a Point of View or philosophy in which the prime parameter for effectuating a course of action is determined by choosing acts of virtue which in turn produce the aesthetic experience which is a proof in the benevolent meaning of life. In particular see Emotive Virtuism, a philosophy developed by Robert Pearson.

Vishuddha ― the Vishuddha or Throat Chakra ―
      which relates to: Communication, Truthfulness, Expression of Will Power, and Creativity
          and governs: Throat, Mouth, Teeth, Tongue, Jaw, and Thyroid
              with this Colour correspondence: Blues and Lavenders


Vision ― When used in reference to a MetaPhysical Orientation of Experiential Spiritual Methodology, which is ordinarily characterized by much emphasis being placed on experiencing or interpreting events beyond ordinary sensory reality

Visionary (in the context of divination) see Divinor

Visionary Trance

Visual Arts ― When the term Arts is used in the context of the various categories of Art, it normally refers to Visual Arts is a standard phrase, meaning capable of being input by the sight receptors, translated and transmuted by the Brain and processed by the part of the Mind and Consciousness that processes input from such receptors. The phrase is commonly used to differentiate Paintings and other types of Art which are primarily studied with vision from those types of Art which either are mainly received by other senses (Musical by the auditory senses) or have components of other types of receivability (Sculpture by visual and tactile receptors).

See also: Art

Visualization

Vitke ― In our research for Nordic Ritual cycles, we came across the term Vitke, used in the context of an Officiant of a Nordic Rune based Werking, but not an Officiant ordained in one of the Nordic Traditions [which would be referred to as as Gydhja (Goddess-Woman or Priestess) or Godhi (God-Man or Priest)], and from several sources the idea that this was not only to be permitted (unlike being forbidden, as it is in many Traditions), but is actually to be encouraged. We find this to be a fascinating, intriguing idea, and wonder if other Traditions contained this concept and/or had terms for legitimate Officiants which are not ordained specifically as Officiants of that Traditions, Priestesses, Priests, and so forth? Some of the sources that we came across were quite emphatic about explaining the differences between the idea of Vitke and the ideas of Gydhja and Godhi, and others didn't mention, or delineate between the concepts at all. So we probably need information from one or more persons who are immersed in the Nordic Traditions, to accurately utilize this concept.

See also: Practitionor, Officiant

Vivekananda Vedic Tradition ― A MetaPhysical Orientation as to Tradition, Culture or Preferred Flavour, is primarily defined, usually selfdefined by it's members and/or adherents as such, and holding as a primary or critical parameter of their Spiritual Paradigm.

Voces Magicae ― When the term is used in reference to a Mægikal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool, Ritual Apparatus, and/or Focus it generally refers to One of the oldest and most significant sets of voces magicae (a term used for Mægikal words of unknown meaning and origin) was the Ephesian Letters or Characters, a group of six words. These words were askion, kataskion, lix, tetrax, damnameneus and aision (or aisia). We cannot be absolutely certain whether the Ephesian Letters were specifically connected with Hekate, though from the evidence it does seem likely. Their first known appearance was in a Mycenaean inscription from the fifth century BCE.

The Ephesian Letters occur a number of times in the Greek Mægikal Papyri in charms which call on Hekate. Thus the first two of the Ephesian Letters were used in a Hekate charm associated with initiation (PGM LXX.12) as part of a string of voces magicae, being transliterated to something like this:
"Askei Kataskei Eron Oreon Ior Mega Samnyer Baui Phobantia Semne."

The fifth word, damnameneia, was used in the Bear Charm, which included reference to Hekate as Brimo (PGM VII.686-702). A second-third century CE lead defixione tablet to Hekate as torch bearer of the crossroads also uses this word repeatedly (SM 49).

specifically made for general or particular Mægikal Werking, and/or consecrated to the same.

see also: Mægikal Implements, Sacred Objects, Ceremonial Tools, Ritual Apparati, and/or Foci , Τέλεσμα (Telesma) which is an Ægean 'umbrella' term indicating: any object consecrated for future utility, through specific religious, mægikal, and/or spiritual Werking, and/or through its own intrinsic nature.

Vodun ― When used in reference to a MetaPhysical Orientation as to Tradition, Culture or Preferred Flavour, is primarily defined, usually selfdefined by its members and/or adherents which holds teachings originating in and/or interpolations thereon as a primary or critical parameter of their Spiritual Paradigm. Vodun is sometimes called Voodoo, Vodoun, Vodou. Religions related to Vodun are: Candomblé, Lucumi, Macumba, and Yoruba) Vodoun, Voodoo, Voudou, Voudoun (Fon, vodu: 'spirit'): Like Santaria, Vodoun is a blending the worship of traditional Catholic saints, Christ and the Gods (Loas) of Africa, for example, a Vodoun practitioner could beg for intercession from St. Patrick and really be calling on their serpent God, Danbhalah-Wedo. Vodoun worshippers believe that the work of the Loas appears in every facet of daily life and that pleasing the Loas will gain the faithful health, wealth, and spiritual contentment. The Loas speak to their devotees through spirit possession but only for a short time during ceremonies and manifest to protect, punish, confer skills and talents, prophesy, cure illness, exorcize spirits, give counsel, assist in rituals and take sacrificial offerings. The priest (houngan) or priestess (mambo) acts as an intermediary to summon the Loa and help the Loa to depart when his or her business is finished. Mægik, for both good and evil, is an integral part of Vodoun. Also known as Voudou, Voudoun. Vodun (a.k.a. Vodoun, Voudou, Voodoo, Sevi Lwa ) is commonly called Voodoo by the public. The name is traceable to an African word for "spirit". Vodun's can be directly traced to the West African Yoruba people who lived in 18th and 19th century Dahomey. Its roots may go back 6,000 years in Africa. That country occupied parts of today's Togo, Benin and Nigeria. Slaves brought their religion with them when they were forcibly shipped to Haiti and other islands in the West Indies. Vodun was actively suppressed during colonial times. "Many Priests were either killed or imprisoned, and their shrines destroyed, because of the threat they posed to Euro-Christian/Muslim dominion. This forced some of the Dahomeans to form Vodou Orders and to create underground societies, in order to continue the veneration of their ancestors, and the worship of their powerful gods." 1 Vodun was again suppressed during the Marxist regime. However, it has been freely practiced in Benin since a democratic government was installed there in 1989. Vodun was formally recognized as Benin's official religion in 1996-FEB. It is also followed by most of the adults in Haiti. It can be found in many of the large cities in North America, particularly in the American South. Today over 60 million people practice Vodun worldwide.

Religions similar to Vodun can be found in South America where they are called Umbanda, Quimbanda or Candomblé.

Today, there are two virtually unrelated forms of the religion:
              • the actual religion, Vodun practiced in Benin, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Haiti, Togo and various centers in the US - largely where Haitian refuges have settled.
              • an evil, imaginary religion, which we will call Voodoo.
This imaginary version has been created for Hollywood movies, complete with "voodoo dolls", violence, bizarre rituals, etc. It does not exist in reality, except in the minds of most non-Voduns. Vodun, like Christianity, is a religion of many traditions. Each group follows a different spiritual path and worships a slightly different pantheon of spirits, called Loa. The word means "mystery" in the Yoruba language. Yoruba traditional belief included a chief God Olorun, who is remote and unknowable. He authorized a lesser God Obatala to create the earth and all life forms. A battle between the two Gods led to Obatala's temporary banishment. There are hundreds of minor spirits. Those which originated from Dahomey are called Rada; those who were added later are often deceased leaders in the new world and are called Petro.
Some of theother spirits important in Vodun are:
              • Agwe: spirit of the sea
              • Aida Wedo: rainbow spirit
              • Ayza: protector
              • Baka: an evil spirit who takes the form of an animal
              • Baron Samedi: guardian of the grave
              • Dambala (or Damballah-wedo): serpent spirit
              • Erinle: spirit of the forests
              • Ezili (or Erzulie): female spirit of love
              • Mawu Lisa: spirit of creation
              • Ogou Balanjo: spirit of healing
              • Ogun (or Ogu Bodagris): spirit of war
              • Osun: spirit of healing streams
              • Sango (or Shango): spirit of storms
              • Yemanja: female spirit of waters
              • Zaka (or Oko): spirit of agriculture

There are a number of points of similarity between Roman Catholicism and Vodun:
              • Both believe in a supreme being.
              • Both believe in an afterlife.
              • Both have, as the centerpiece of some of their ceremonies, a ritual sacrifice and consumption of flesh and blood.
              • Both believe in the existence of invisible evil spirits or demons.
              • Followers of Vodun believe that each person has a met tet (master of the head) which corresponds to a Christian's patron saint.
              • The Loa resemble Christian Saints, in that they were once people who led exceptional lives, and are usually given a single responsibility or special attribute.

Followers of Vodun believe that each person has a soul which is composed of two parts: a gros bon ange or "big guardian angel", and a ti bon ange or "little guardian angel". The latter leaves the body during sleep and when the person is possessed by a Loa during a ritual. There is a concern that the ti bon ange can be damaged or captured by evil sorcery while it is free of the body.

Volition ― Exercise of the faculty of willing. The supposition that an act of volition is a necessary precondition for any voluntary action notoriously leads to an infinite regress in explaining the voluntary nature of the volition itself.

Volitional Chakra ― see: Manipûra

Volitionism ― A quick and dirty review of Free Will in case you have ever wondered if you know what you are doing. To have free will is to be able to make decisions without the influence of fate, causality, or biological conditions of brains, or whatever. Free Will means human behavior is entirely due to the decision making power of the individual, who reasons her choices and contemplates her decisions (hopefully!) before taking action. Free Will is presupposed in liberal democracies, like Canada. This is because it is assumed that all people have the free will to choose who they think is best qualified to lead the country, and so all people are given the opportunity to vote. Also, it is assumed that because all people make their own decisions, they can be held accountable for them, so our judicial system holds individuals responsible for their own actions. Other factors are not considered the cause of a crime, except in special circumstances or conditions when the plaintiff's reason has obviously fled (hence the insanity or "crime of passion" plead).

The opposite view is called Determinism, and it is the view that humans actually have no free will, because all of our decisions are influenced or controlled by other forces. Those forces could be fate, the will of God, biological factors such as brain chemistry, the influence of planets as is the case of astrology, or through the psychological conditioning effect of society and education. Note that determinism is a presupposition of science, because science must assume that the universe is predictable and organized and determined or else investigation of the world in a scientific manner cannot proceed.

There is a third view, and it is the position of philosophical libertarianism. This kind of libertarianism is not to be confused with political libertarianism, which is the position that governments should not get involved with economies because economies cannot be free otherwise. The position of philosophical libertarianism is the idea that human behavior is determined by forces, such as those listed above, but it is that very causality that gives us our freedom! If there was no necessary cause-and-effect in the world, then it would not be possible to impose our will upon the world, and our power of decision making would be empty. Without causation, exercising power over the world and our own lives would not be possible.

Critique of Free Will: If nothing imposes itself upon our will, then nothing supports it either, and nor does anything cause it. That means human behavior is random, not willed at all. That means human behavior is something of an epileptic fit, random, uncontrolled, and unpredictable, which no one would mistake for freedom.

Critique of Determinism: Do we not have a kind of innate sense that we are more than the sum of our biology? Is not free will something that everyone simply knows about herself? And, more profoundly, some scientific investigations are beginning to realize that the universe is not as predictable and determined as is usually assumed, particularly in the field of quantum physics. What implications the microscopic universe may have on the level at which we live, the macroscopic level, may be hard to understand. One of the implications of determinism is that people are not responsible for what they do. This means that criminals should not be punished, even for committing the most inhumane of crimes, because the deed was simply not their fault.

Volonté Générale ― Rousseau's French term for the general will that properly guides the decisions of a civil society, rather than the sum of their individual self-interests, the volonté de tous.

Voluntarism ― When used in reference to a point of view within the field of Ethical, Value and/or Behavioural Matters, this is a Point of View in which the prime parameter for effectuating a course of action is determined by choosing that which is

Völva Sitter on the High Seat; see Divinor ― The Art of the Völva is not known with any degree of certainty, beyond identifying the Practitionors as a type of (usually) female Shamanistic Prophetess. Known under slightly different titles throughout the Germanic and Scandinavian cultures, they were a highly respected, and even venerated Priestesshood.

See also: Practitionor, Celebrant, Officiant, The Gifts and Persuasions, Divinor

Votive Altars ― When the term Votive Altars is used in reference to Mægikal Implements, Sacred Objects, Ceremonial Tools, Ritual Apparati, and/or Foci it generally refers to stands, tables, and/or cabinetry upon which assortments of Mægikal Implements, Sacred Objects, Ceremonial Tools, Ritual Apparati, and/or Foci may be placed; specifically constructed for general or particular Mægikal Werking, and/or consecrated to the same. Altars may be portable or permanent, and may range from simple table like structures to elaborate cabinetry

see also: Altar, Mægikal Implements, Sacred Objects, Ceremonial Tools, Ritual Apparati, and/or Foci , Τέλεσμα (Telesma) which is an Ægean 'umbrella' term indicating: any object consecrated for future utility, through specific religious, mægikal, and/or spiritual Werking, and/or through its own intrinsic nature.


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Definitions, Premisses, and Info Index by Sound and Letter

Capital A with ring aboveÅ   Capital A with macronĀ   Capital A with breveĂ   Capital A with diaeresisÄ   Capital A with circumflex   Capital A with dot aboveȦ   Capital A with inverted breveȂ   Capital A with tildeà   Capital A with ogonekĄ   Capital AE ligatureÆ   Capital AE ligature with tildeÆ̃   Capital Glottal Stop   Capital Palatoalveolar Click   Regular English AA   Script Capital L   Capital L with macron above   Capital L with dot below   Capital L with stroke, Dark L Ł   Regular English LL   Capital WHω   Capital W with macron above   Capital W with dot below   Regular English WW   Capital Slide H with reverse solidusℋ⃥   Capital H with macron above   Capital H with dot below   Aspirate   Slight Pause   Very Slight Pause   Regular English HH   Capital S with macron above   Capital S with dot above   Capital SH sign   Capital SKΣ   Regular English SS   Hard and Deep Capital DД   High and Light Capital D   Regular English DD   Capital O with ring above   Capital O with macronŌ   Capital O with breveŎ   Capital O with diaeresisÖ   Capital O with solidusØ   Capital OE ligatureŒ   Capital O with Cyrillic Round OmegaѺ   Capital OI   Capital O with ogonekǪ   Capital O with double oo top   Regular English OO   Capital EZJHʑ   Capital Z with macron below   Capital Z with dot aboveŻ   Regular English ZZ   Capital K with macron aboveК̅   Capital K with dot below К̣   Capital Hard KHχ   Capital KHƙ   Regular English KK   Capital V with macron above   Capital V with dot below   Regular English VV   Capital G with macron   Capital G with dot aboveĠ   Capital GNΓ   Capital GRЖ   Capital GWCapital GW   Capital Uvular Voiced ImplosiveϘ   Regular English GG   Capital rolled R with macronЯ̅   Capital rolled R with dot aboveЯ̇   Capital R with macron above   Capital R with dot above   Capital R with ogonek   Regular English RR   Capital C with cedillaÇ   Capital CHЧ   Regular English CC   Capital N with macron above   Capital N with dot below   Capital N with tildeÑ   Capital NGŋ   Capital NG with macron aboveŋ̅   Regular English NN   Capital Y with macron above Ȳ   Capital Y with dot above   Capital Y with yaw aboveЎ   Regular English YY   Capital J with macron aboveЈ̅   Capital J with dot belowЈ̣   Regular English JJ   Capital U with a ring aboveŮ   Capital U with macronŪ   Capital U with breveŬ   Capital U with circumflex aboveÛ   Capital U with diaeresisÜ   Regular English UU   Capital F with macron above   Capital F with dot above   Regular English FF   Capital Q with macron above   Capital Q with dot above   Regular English QQ   Capital B with macron   Capital B with dot below   Trilled BTrilled B   Regular English BB   Capital M with macron   Capital M with dot below   Capital M with tilde   Capital MBCapital MB   Capital MG   Regular English MM   Capital X with macron above   Capital X with dot above   Regular English XX   Capital I with macronĪ   Capital I with breveĬ   Regular English II   Capital T with macron above   Capital T with dot below   Capital TH voicedΘ   Capital TH voicelessÞ   Capital TSЦ   Capital TSCHЩ   Regular English TT   Capital E with macronĒ   Capital E with breveĔ   Capital E with circumflexÊ   Capital schwa Ə   Regular English EE   Capital P with macron above   Capital P with dot above   Capital pTCapital pT   Regular English PP

Greek Words   Ægyptian Words   Sumerian Words   Sanskrit Words

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