Emblematic Geometrical Shapes
(None of these Categories are concrete, if they help with navigation or location of particular information, then they will have fulfilled their purpose. Such is the fate of Linearity in a Wholistic Cosmos.)
Cross- When the term Cruet is used in reference to a Magickal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool and/or Focus it generally refers to an implement with normally only one upright and one transverse component, specifically made for general or particular Magickal Working, and/or consecrated to the same with a wide range of meanings. Some of the most well known types are the Celtic Cross, the Tau Cross, the Cross of Suffering, the Cross of Equilibrium, but there are countless variations, each with it's own symbolism.
Cross of Equilibrium - When the term Cross of Equilibrium [in Aleister Crowley's 777 Tables of Correspondences, key number 22] is used in reference to a Magickal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool and/or Focus it generally refers to specifically made for general or particular Magickal Working, and/or consecrated to the same.
Cross of Suffering - When the term Cross of Suffering [in Aleister Crowley's 777 Tables of Correspondences, key number 23] is used in reference to a Magickal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool and/or Focus it generally refers to a representation of the style of crosses made by the old Romans to utilize in crucifixions as punishment specifically made for general or particular Magickal Working, and/or consecrated to the same. It is typically used in some Workings to represent those concepts and/or forces.
Fylfat (or Fylfot) Cross - When the term Fylfat (or Fylfot) Cross [in Aleister Crowley's 777 Tables of Correspondences, key number 1] is used in reference to a Magickal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool and/or Focus it generally refers to an artifact either in the shape of that type cross or with a Fylfat (or Fylfot) Cross pictorially shown on the artifact. The Fylfat (or Fylfot) Cross symbol is an ancient MetaPhysical symbol shown in the pictographs of many archaic cultures from the American Indian cultures to the cultures of the Ganges. Some sources trace it's lineage back to the archaic culture meant when people talk of Atlantis. The Fylfat (or Fylfot) Cross's main correspondence it to Whirling Energy, Force and/or Power, which in some Traditions is considered the seed of all Magickal Energy. It has a core of Solar nature manifested in a radiating spinning display of raw Energy. There is a great deal of varied symbolism in this Implement, much of which had to do with sexual based Magicks. The Fylfat (or Fylfot) Cross is also sometimes known a Cross Gammata because a simplified version could be constructed from four Gammas from the Greek alphabet. A more widely known term for a simplified version Fylfat (or Fylfot) Cross due to it's infamous use by the German Government under Hitler is the Swastika, interestingly the Nazis reversed direction of apparent motion from clockwise to counterclockwise on and truncated the end serif as the symbol of their ideas.
Crux Ansata - When the term Crux Ansata is used in reference to a Magickal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool and/or Focus it generally refers to the symbol that the Ægyptians called the Ankh, representing Life, resembling a sandalstrap and thus "The Way of the Going" and/or perhaps "The Only Dance There Is". The emphasis of this symbol is upon the glory of the journey rather than the destination. Best specifically made for general or particular Magickal Working, and/or consecrated to the same.
Cube - When the term Cube is used in reference to a Magickal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool and/or Focus it generally refers to any object with 6 equal and square sides, specifically made for general or particular Magickal Working, and/or consecrated to the same, normally used as an altar, or altar component, but sometimes to represent certain facets of the Cosmos or Forces in a Working, depending on the correspondences of the materials from which it is constructed.
Pentacle - When the term Pentacle [in Aleister Crowley's 777 Tables of Correspondences (sometimes says Pentacle but may be intended as Pantacle, key number 32bis] is used in reference to a Magickal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool and/or Focus it generally refers to a practitionor's Ceremonial Pentacle which is usually a Disc with symbols carved or embedded into it, contains a representation of either a Pentagram or a Pentagon and is used to represent the component of Physical Manifestation, Stability, Protection and Intent in Workings and to help focus or direct the flow of the Energy created. In most Traditions the Pentacle is considered to generally correspond to Earth Energies. There is much discussion within the Pagan community as to the differences if any between a Pentagram and a Pentacle, however the bulk of the support seems to be that a Pentagram is the star shape that can be drawn unicursally, with a single line, whereas the Pentacle is the same symbol enclosed in a Circle.
Pentagram - When the term Pentagram is used in reference to a Magickal Implement, Sacred Object, Ceremonial Tool and/or Focus it generally refers to a star shape that can be drawn unicursally, with a single line, hence it is sometimes called the Endless Knot. One of the most complete explanations was found at: http://www.strega.org/pent.html though that site does not appear to be still extant. We quote it in full below:The pentagram has long been associated with mystery and magic. It is the simplest form of star shape that can be drawn unicursally, with a single line, hence it is sometimes called the Endless Knot. Other names are the Goblin Cross, the Pentalpha, the Witch Foot, the Devils Star and the Seal of Solomon (more correctly attributed to the hexagram).
It has long been believed to be a potent protection against evil and demons, hence a symbol of safety, and was sometimes worn as an amulet for happy homecoming. The old folk-song : Green Grow the Rushes, O! refers to the use of the pentagram above doors and windows in the line: Five is the symbol at your door.
The potency and associations of the pentagram have evolved throughout history. Today it is an ubiquitous symbol of Neo-Pagans with much depth of magical and symbolic meaning.
The pentagram symbol today is ascribed many meanings and deep significance, though much of this is very recent. However, it has been used throughout history and in many contexts.
The earliest known use of the pentagram dates back to around the Uruk period around 3500 BC at Ur of the Chaldees in Ancient Mesopotamia where it was found on potsherds together with other signs of the period associated with the earliest known developments of written language. In later periods of Mesopotamian art, the pentagram was used in royal inscriptions and was symbolic of imperial power extending out to the four corners of the world. Amongst the Hebrews, the symbol was ascribed to Truth and to the five books of the Pentateuch. It is sometimes, incorrectly, called the Seal of Solomon (see Hexagram) though its usage was in parallel with the hexagram. In Ancient Greece, it was called the Pentalpha, being geometrically composed of five A's. Unlike earlier civilizations, the Greeks did not generally attribute other symbolic meanings to the letters of their alphabet, but certain symbols became connected with Greek letter shapes or positions (e.g. Gammadion, Alpha-Omega). The geometry of the pentagram and its metaphysical associations were explored by the Pythagoreans (after Pythagoras 586-506BC) who considered it an emblem of perfection. Together with other discovered knowledge of geometric figures and proportion, it passed down into post-Hellenic art where the golden proportion may be seen in the designs of some temples.
Early Christians attributed the pentagram to the Five Wounds of Christ and from then until medieval times, it was a lesser-used Christian symbol. Prior to the time of the Inquisition, there were no evil associations to the pentagram. Rather its form implied Truth, Religious Mysticism and the work of The Creator. The Emperor Constantine I who, after gaining the help of the Christian church in his military and religious takeover of the Roman Empire in 312 AD, used the pentagram, together with the chi-rho symbol (a symbolic form of cross) in his seal and amulet.
However, it was the cross (a symbol of suffering) rather than the pentagram (a symbol of truth) that was used as a symbol by the Church which subsequently came to power and who's manifest destiny was to usurp the supreme power of the Roman Empire.
The annual church feast of Epiphany, celebrating the visit of the three Magi to the infant Jesus as well as the Church's mission to bring truth to the Gentiles had as its symbol the pentagram, (although in present times the symbol has been changed to a five-pointed star in reaction to the Neo-Pagan use of the pentagram).
In the legend of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the pentagram was Sir Gawain's glyph, inscribed in gold on his shield, symbolizing the five knightly virtues - generosity, courtesy, chastity, chivalry and piety.
In Medieval times, the Endless Knot was a symbol of Truth and was a protection against demons. It was used as an amulet of personal protection and to guard windows and doors. The pentagram with one point upwards symbolized summer; with two points upwards, it was a sign for winter. During the long period of the Inquisition, there was much promulgation of lies and accusations in the interests of orthodoxy and elimination of heresy. The Church lapsed into a long period of the very diabolism it sought to oppose. The pentagram was seen to symbolize a Goats Head or the Devil in the form of Baphomet and it was Baphomet whom the Inquisition accused the Templars of worshipping. The Dominicans of the Inquisition moved their attention from the Christian heretics to the Pagan Witches, to those who only paid lip-service to Christianity but still followed an Old Religion and to the wise-ones amongst them. In the purge on Witches, other horned Gods such as Pan became equated with the Devil (a Christian concept) and the pentagram, the folk symbol of security, for the first time in history, was equated with evil and was called the Witches Foot.
The Old Religion and its symbols went underground, in fear of the Church's persecution, and there it stayed, gradually withering, for centuries.
In the foundation of Hermeticism, in hidden societies of craftsmen and scholarly men, away from the eyes of the Church and its paranoia, the proto-science of alchemy developed along with its occult philosophy and cryptical symbolism. Graphical and geometric symbolism became very important and the period of the Renaissance emerged.
The concept of the microcosmic world of Man as analogous to the macrocosm, the greater universe of spirit and elemental matter became a part of traditional western occult teaching, as it had long been in eastern philosophies, As Above, So Below. The pentagram, the Star of the Microcosm, symbolized Man within the microcosm, representing in analogy the Macrocosmic universe.
The upright pentagram bears some resemblance to the shape of man with his legs and arms outstretched. In Tycho Brahe's Calendarium Naturale Magicum Perpetuum (1582) occurs a pentagram with human body imposed and the Hebrew for YHSVH associated with the elements. An illustration attributed to Brae's contemporary Agrippa (Henry Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim) is of similar proportion and shows the five planets and the moon, at the center point, the genitalia. Other illustrations of the period by Robert Fludd and Leonardo da Vinci show geometric relationships of man to the universe.
Later, the pentagram came to be symbolic of the relationship of the head to the four limbs and hence of the pure concentrated essence of anything (or the spirit) to the four traditional elements of matter, earth, water, air and fire - spirit is The Quintessence.
In Freemasonry, Man as Microprosopus was and is associated with the five-pointed Pentalpha. The symbol was used, interlaced and upright for the sitting Master of the Lodge. The geometric properties and structure of the Endless Knot were appreciated and symbolically incorporated into the 72 degree angle of the compasses, the Masonic emblem of virtue and duty. The origins of Freemasonry are lost in the depths of history, obscured by the traditional Craft secrecy of the order, but there are signs throughout history of the associations of craftsmanship and ritual and symbolism that have remained known only to a few, and the history of the pentagram has remained occluded in the same kind of mystery. The women's branch of Freemasonry uses the five pointed Eastern Star with two points up as its emblem. Each point commemorates a heroine of biblical lore.
No known graphical illustration associating the pentagram with evil appears until the nineteenth century. Eliphas Levi Zahed (actually the pen name of Alphonse Louis Constant, a defrocked French Catholic Abb) illustrates the upright pentagram of microcosmic man beside an inverted pentagram with the goats head of Baphomet. It is this illustration and juxtaposition that has led to the concept of different orientations of the pentagram being good and evil.
Against the rationalism of the 18th century came a reaction in the 19th century with the growth of a new mysticism owing much to the Holy Qabalah, the ancient oral tradition of Judaism relating the cosmogony of God and the universe and the moral and occult truths of their relationship to Man. It is not so much a religion as a system of understanding based upon symbolism and the numerical and alphabetical interrelationships of words and concepts, the Gematria.
The Golden Dawn did much to advance and disseminate the roots of modern Hermetic Qabalah around the world in its time of strength (from 1888 to around the start of the First World War), and through the writings and work of a number of its adepts and adherents have come some of the most important ideas of todays Qabalist philosophy and magic. In the 1940's Gerald Gardner adopted the pentagram with two points upward as the sigil of second degree initiation in the newly emergent, Neo-Pagan rituals of Witchcraft, later to become known as Wicca. The one-point upward pentagram together with the upright triangle symbolized third degree initiation. (A point downwards triangle is the symbol of First Degree Initiates).
It was not until the late 1960's that the pentagram again became an amuletic symbol to be worn. Co-incidentally with the rise of popular interest in Witchcraft and Wicca and the publication of many books (including several novels) on the subject, there was a reaction to the Church.
In its extreme, one aspect of that reaction was in the establishment of the satanic cult - The Church of Satan - by Anton LaVey. For its emblem, this cult adopted the inverted pentagram after the Baphomet image of Eliphas Levi. The reaction of the Christian church was to condemn as evil all who took the pentalpha as a symbol and even to condemn the symbol itself, much as had been the post-war attitude to the swastika.
The distinction between the point-upwards and point-downwards pentagram forms became accentuated in the minds of Pagans and led to the concepts of white Witchcraft and black. Those who took on board the strong personal ethical code of Wicca, the Wiccan Rede of 'An it harm none, do what you will' did not wish to be tarred with the same brush as the Satanists who's philosophy is one of the domination of the spirit by the physical body - the priority of matter and physical existence.
Hence, despite the use and the different meaning of the inverted pentagram as a symbol of Gardnerian initiation, other Wiccans, notably in the USA where the fundamentalist Christians are particularly aggressive to those who do not share their beliefs, are against any usage of the symbol. It is sad to say that even the use of the upright pentagram gives rise to social discrimination against Pagans in some communities.
Otherwise, the pentagram or pentacle has become firmly established as a common Neo-Pagan and Wiccan symbol, acquiring many aspects of mystique and associations that are today often considered to be ancient folk-lore !
The antiquity of the pentagram is certain; its meanings and associations have evolved and richened throughout its history. Its use within modern Neo-Paganism as a group symbol is as important as the cross has been in the history of Christianity and it is in the ubiquity and the attributed meanings of the symbol that its potency lies rather than in its antiquity. From the Earth aware attitudes and respect of life of modern Pagans has already come the movement towards protecting and conserving the ecology and resources of our planet. Perhaps they will see the dawn of a real new age of hope or perhaps just the end of an age of humanity.
Return to the and Foci Codex
Go to Garden of Life "Who We Are" area
Go to TransPagan Consensus Survey Intro Page
Return to the Garden of Life Temple Main Page
Return to the Garden of Life Portal