Synecdoche is a linguistics term for a habit that is ubiquitous in common speech. Synecdoche is a type of figure of speech where at least one of the following apply; it may be where a term denoting a part of something is used to refer to the whole thing (Pars pro toto); a term denoting a thing (a "whole") is used to refer to part of it (Totum pro parte); a term denoting a specific class of thing is used to refer to a larger, more general class; a term denoting a general class of thing is used to refer to a smaller, more specific class; a term denoting a material is used to refer to an object composed of that material. The English word comes from the Greek συνεκδοχή (synekdoche), meaning "simultaneous understanding", which comes from the prepositions συν (syn-) meaning "with, together", and εκ (ek-) meaning "out of, from", and the verb δέχεσθαι (dechesthai) meaning "to accept", "to take on a share of". Originally meaning accepting a part as responsible for the whole, or vice versa. εκδέχομαι (Ek-decomai) also means "take" in the sense of "understand" (opposite of "mistake"). The "doche" is also akin to Latin doc-ere "to teach" found in words like "doc-ent," "doc-tor," and "dog-ma."
This device was widely used in Ægyptian Ṇ't̄ā, and more secular writings. For instance in the chapter (usually 125 or so) of the Ægyptian Book of Shadowing Forth by Day (vulgarly referred to as the "Book of the Dead"), that is generally called the 'Negative Confessions' each couplet verse is addressed to a particular deity but not by name, e.g.: Mut is addressed as 'Wide Wing', Djehuti is addressed as 'Long Nose', and Re is addressed as 'Long Stride', basically being called after one of their most frequently thought of attributes.
Synecdoche \SIN-ek-deh-kee\ (noun) Plural - Synecdochi., Synecdochi include such as:
'All hands on deck!'
'That big-mouth knows everything!'
'The law is after him'